Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe <p><strong>Contact an editor</strong>: Send a message to M&amp;HEj on <strong>WhatsApp</strong>: <a href="https://wa.me/message/HS3MEGI4MZC2H1">https://wa.me/message/HS3MEGI4MZC2H1</a></p> <p>The Multidisciplinary &amp; Health Education Journal (M&amp;HEJ) is an international journal, intended for the publication of original scientific articles, clinical case, short paper, research note, case report, dissertations and review.</p> <p>M&amp;HEJ is an independent, on-line publication with annational and international editorial board. M&amp;HEJ is open access with no cost to view or download articles and reasonable cost for publication of research artcles, making M&amp;HEJ easily availiable to scientists from resource restricted regions.</p> <p>The Journal is intended to publish original contributions covering different aspects of:</p> <p>- <strong>Microbiology</strong>; basic, clinical (bacteriology, parasitology, mycology and virology), industrial (biotechnology), environmental, food, sanitary and agricultural</p> <p>- <strong>Food safety and food toxicology, science and technology</strong></p> <p>- <strong>Education for health</strong>; safety, infection prevention, therapy and pharmacotherapeutic monitoring of infections, epidemiology of infections, health education (personal hygiene and health care), healthy eating, drug use and prevention of multi-drug microbial resistance, risk analysis and risk factors that favor the infection.</p> <p>Sometimes submitted manuscripts need Editorial improvements that require consultation between the authors and the editorial board. M&amp;HEJ has a speacilized editorial staff, the Area Coeditors Committee, to work with authors from developing countries to generate an aritcle that meets international publication standards. This may include editing for english, reorganization of the manuscript, or even suggestions on experimental design. Working in an interactive manner, the Area Coeditors Committee and the authors, will be able to achieve not only a manuscript at international standards but also the exchange of ideas and methods for publishing in other international journals.</p> en-US journalmhe@gmail.com (Elvira D. Jacobi) journalmhe@gmail.com (-) Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.3 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Construction of the Latin American Archetypal Pedagogy Grammar of the 19th century: Hermeneutic Anthropology of Self-taught Knowledge, 1810 – 1830 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/144 <p>The present Investigation has as its substantive purpose the study of constitutional guarantees, to ensure the effective protection of fundamental rights and equality before the law of all citizens, in addition to safeguarding the effective control of State power by citizens. Said dense work is based on the idea that the law must be an instrument to guarantee fundamental rights because it considers that these rights are essential for human dignity and for peaceful and just coexistence in a democratic society, it is; attached to the theme: political and legal sciences, international politics, its substantive purpose is to carry out an ethnohistorical reflection on the profile of the State as a diplomatic, guaranteeing, jurisdictional entity in relation to other figures that, in the regional and international arena, have as an objective, the protection of people. In the same way, a review of the postulates of Ferrajoli is made, as well as the importance of the jurisdictional guarantee as a means to protect the fundamental rights of people against state power, which has had a great influence on the way in which understands the role of courts and justice in democratic societies We will do this reflective analysis hand in hand with documentary ethnohistory and having as a context of interpretation, understanding and explanation the hermeneutic space of legal epochal knowledge and how it was thought and put into practice by that society whose impact still resonates in the culture of Latin America today.</p> Danny Francis Gómez Romero Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/144 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Criminal Aspects Analysis of the International Criminal Court http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/143 <p>The International Criminal Court (ICC; the Court) is an international court that prosecutes individual perpetrators of international crimes: war crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide and aggression. The Court was established with the objective of ending "impunity for the perpetrators of these crimes and thus contributing to the prevention of (...) serious crimes [that] threaten the peace, security and well-being of the world." The founding document of the ICC is the Rome Statute, which was adopted in June 1998. Following the sixtieth ratification of the Rome Statute in April 2002, the Court began its work on July 1, 2002, and is based in La Haya, the Netherlands. Ad hoc tribunals and courts such as the Nuremberg Tribunals or the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda have prosecuted the perpetrators of international crimes for more than 50 years. However, these courts have limited jurisdiction, both temporal and territorial. Furthermore, the costs of continually establishing new courts are prohibitive. Therefore, a permanent international criminal court is more practical, inexpensive, and far-reaching.</p> Boni Sylvain Akpone Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/143 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Vector-Borne Malaria Incidence in Relation to Climatic Conditions in Different Regions Worldwide, Latin America, and Panama http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/142 <p>About 0.3% of the world's malaria cases occur in the Americas. Overall, the region has achieved significant reductions in the burden of the disease in the period 2000-2020. The incidence of cases fell from 14.1 to 4.6 per 1,000 population at risk. The incidence of mortality fell from 0.8 to 0.3 deaths per 100,000 population at risk. On November 6, a new Day against Malaria in the Americas will be commemorated throughout the continent. The date, established by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), had for 2022 the slogan: "Achieving the goal of zero malaria". The organization believes that the date is an opportunity to increase the participation of various actors in the fight against malaria. This is happening in the midst of a slowdown in the progress achieved over the past decades in Latin America.</p> Fidedigna Rosario, Damarys Aizprua Govea, Alexandra Araujo, Margarita Ponce, María Tejada Calderón, Ariel Prado Iturralde Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/142 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Ethnohistorical Anthropology of the Educational Reforms and Problems of the 21st Century http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/141 <p>Below is a reflection on the educational reforms and problems of the 21st century, as well as some theoretical references that can provide greater depth in each topic, whose substantive purpose is to carry out an ethnohistorical anthropology of the reforms and pedagogical problems of the century. XXI, in order to determine the ontological foundations while implementing new pedagogical methodologies, an attempt has been made to transform traditional teaching methods to adapt to the needs of contemporary students. From the sociocritical paradigm, discourse analysis, symbolic hermeneutics, archetypal Swiss psychology, history and transcomplexity, an exhaustive analysis of the bases that served as the foundation for the enlightened thought of the 18th and 21st centuries in Latin America will be carried out. This approach is based on the application of active, collaborative and meaningful learning strategies, using technological resources and promoting critical thinking and problem solving. Education is one of the fundamental pillars for the development of a society. Educational reforms focus on improving the quality and equity of education, adapting content to the needs of today's world, promoting inclusion and guaranteeing access to quality education for all. Teacher training and demands of the profession: Changes in society and in pedagogical methodologies require updated and quality teacher training. In general terms, educational reforms in the 21st century are of vital importance to address problems such as inequality, lack of relevance, lack of access to technology and lack of motivation. These reforms seek to improve educational quality and equity, promoting an education that prepares students for the challenges of the 21st century. The importance of these sources lies in their scientific rigor and their contribution to the educational debate, providing evidence and informed analysis for decision-making in this area.</p> Danny Francis Gómez Romero, Andrés Eloy Golindano García Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/141 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Pedagogical Hermeneutic Anthropology: The teaching problem, conflict and teacher unrest, the salary issue, incentive systems and the meanings of Latin American professionalization http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/140 <p>A reflection is presented on the epistemic positions of prominent authors who emphasize what the teaching problem is, which covers several aspects, including the conflict and discomfort that teachers experience in their work. Regarding the objective of this reflection, it is of an academic, pedagogical and educational nature, it is essential to recognize the central role that teachers play in the teaching and learning process. They are responsible for guiding and motivating students, promoting their comprehensive development and facilitating their acquisition of knowledge and skills. From the hermeneutic paradigm, which is an interpretive and comprehensive approach used in the human and social sciences to understand the meaning and interpretation of texts, discourses and cultural expressions. It is based on the ontological pillars of understanding, interpretation and dialogue to reveal deep understanding of the phenomena studied. In general terms, the possible results are that it is necessary to consider different perspectives and approaches, as well as have policies and measures that promote adequate working conditions and the recognition and appreciation of teaching work. This teaching problem in Latin America has been characterized by various factors that contribute to conflict and unrest among education professionals. One of the main problems is the salary issue, the performance of which seems decisive, facing this situation: it is the goal.</p> Danny Francis Gómez Romero, Andrés Eloy Golindano García Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/140 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Biodefense and Bioterrorism in Latin America: A Critical Analysis of Preparedness and Response in the Context of Clinical Microbiology http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/139 <p>This dissertation addresses what bioterrorism and biodefense are, it focuses on analyzing what Latin America's reaction would be regarding a threat of this type.&nbsp;It integrates all the aspects to be considered if an attack of this nature were to occur, in addition to evaluating the possible responses that countries have or do not have in response to this and demonstrating whether or not they are prepared to handle a threat of this type.&nbsp;In addition, it reports the great impact that an event of this kind would have on public health.</p> Esmeralda de Jesús Arias González , Joseline Lizbeth Garay Villanueva, J. Jesús Padilla-Frausto Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/139 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The panorama of virtual education in Colombia: a general analysis http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/138 <p>Virtual education has become increasingly prevalent in Colombia, providing students, educators and institutions with challenges and opportunities. This reflection article explores the landscape of virtual education in Colombia, examining the challenges faced by students, educators and institutions, as well as the opportunities provided by this mode of education. Additionally, the article evaluates the impact of virtual education on Colombian society, including its implications for the economy, the educational system, and the social fabric. The accessibility of virtual education in Colombia is also a crucial aspect of this writing, as the article reviews the initiatives that can be taken to make virtual education more widely available and the obstacles that must be overcome to ensure its widespread accessibility.</p> Jonathan Posada González, Sergio Arias Flórez , Marisol Rendón Manrique Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/138 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Literature for the development of critical thinking skills in university students http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/137 <p>With the notion of examining the impact of literature on the critical thinking skills of college students, this article delves into the importance of cultivating these skills. Covers topics such as the definition and importance of critical thinking, how literature can help in skill development, educational methodologies used to integrate literature and critical thinking, ways to evaluate the effectiveness of this pedagogical approach, and possible avenues for future research. By taking these factors into account, this article presents a framework for thoughtful consideration of how teaching and learning conditions can be optimized and leveraged to understand social and cultural realities better.</p> Jonathan Posada González Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/137 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Ethnohistory and Hermeneutics of the Problem of Equity. Access, coverage and extension of schooling http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/136 <p>Below is a reflection that has to do with the problem of equity, access, coverage and extension of schooling, which is of great philosophical and educational importance because it is related to equal opportunities and the right to education for all individuals in a society. to the educational reforms and problems of the 21st century, as well as some theoretical references that can provide greater depth in each topic, whose substantive purpose is to carry out an Ethnohistory and hermeneutics of the problems of equity, access, coverage and extension of schooling, In order to determine the ontological foundations while implementing new pedagogical methodologies, we have sought to transform traditional teaching methods to adapt to the needs of contemporary students. From the sociocritical paradigm, discourse analysis, symbolic hermeneutics, archetypal Swiss psychology, history and transcomplexity, an exhaustive analysis of the bases that served as the foundation for the enlightened thought of the 18th and 21st centuries in Latin America will be carried out. This approach is based on the application of active, collaborative and meaningful learning strategies, using technological resources and promoting critical thinking and problem solving. Education is one of the fundamental pillars for the development of a society. The problem was based on improving the quality and equity of education, adapting the contents to the needs of today's world, promoting inclusion and guaranteeing access to quality education for all. Teacher training and demands of the profession: Changes in society and in pedagogical methodologies require updated and quality teacher training. In general terms, educational reforms in the 21st century are of vital importance to address problems such as inequality, lack of relevance, lack of access to technology and lack of motivation. These transformations seek to improve educational quality and equity, promoting an education that prepares students for the challenges of the 21st century. The importance of these sources lies in their scientific rigor and their contribution to the educational and hermeneutical debate, providing evidence and informed analysis for decision-making in this area.</p> Danny Francis Gómez Romero, Andrés Eloy Golindano García Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/136 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Three-Dimensional Theory of Law. An epistemic, axiological and functional approach in the context of the democratic and Social State of Law and Justice http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/135 <p>In this essay, the three-dimensional theory of law proposed by the author Reale will be analyzed, which shows a more understandable vision of the elements that make up the law, this arises through the relationship between the science of law, legal sociology and philosophy of law, it can be presented in an analogous way as fact, value and norm, which constitutes an essential relationship in law. From an epistemic, axiological and functional approach in the context of the democratic and social State of law and justice. Legal hermeneutic anthropology is a theoretical approach that seeks to understand law through the interpretation of symbols and meanings. This approach has been used in a variety of fields, including legal theory, jurisprudence, and legal philosophy. Legal hermeneutic anthropology is a valuable tool to understand the regional system of protection of human rights. This method can help understand the values and principles that underpin the system, the mechanisms and procedures that make up the system, and the decisions and rulings issued by the system's bodies. Likewise, the trilingual perspective that has been used in this essay allows us to understand the regional system of protection of human rights from a broader and plural perspective. This perspective strengthens and contributes to promoting a better understanding and application of human rights in the region.</p> Yonankary Maldonado Briceño Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/135 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Scientific and Educational Impact of the Use of Electronic Cigarettes, Effects on Adolescents http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/134 <p>Below In recent years, the use of electronic cigarettes has experienced significant growth, especially among adolescents. This phenomenon has generated concern due to the possible negative effects it could have on the health of young people. In this essay, the available scientific evidence on the use of electronic cigarettes in adolescents will be analyzed and its possible health consequences will be discussed. The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among adolescents has increased significantly in recent years. This has generated concern among the scientific and medical community, since e-cigarettes contain nicotine, a highly addictive substance that can have serious effects on the development of the adolescent brain. A documentary methodology was used, the main effects of e-cigarettes on adolescents were analyzed. It is concluded that the use of e-cigarettes increases the risk of nicotine addiction, as well as the risk of starting to smoke traditional cigarettes. Additionally, e-cigarettes can negatively affect the cognitive development and behavior of adolescents. The available scientific evidence suggests that the use of electronic cigarettes in adolescents presents various risks to their health. These include an increased risk of starting to smoke conventional tobacco, negative effects on brain development, respiratory problems, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, e-cigarette advertising appears to have a significant impact on the use of these devices among young people. It is necessary to implement prevention policies and programs that address this problem comprehensively and promote healthy lifestyles among adolescents.</p> Dany F. López Gómez, Fabriccio R. Ibarrondo L. Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/134 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Feedback and its Relevance in Agricultural Engineering Courses http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/133 <p>The importance of feedback in agricultural engineering is highlighted in various aspects, such as improving student learning, optimizing educational processes, and adapting to the changing needs of the agricultural sector. Feedback is defined as information provided to students about their performance, with the aim of improving their performance and promoting the development of strategic learning skills. In the university setting, feedback is applied in a variety of ways, including written, verbal, real-time, and rubric-based feedback. Its importance in improving students' academic performance is recognized, especially in areas such as academic writing and technical problem solving. In addition, its role in the development of research and self-regulation skills, fundamental for both academic and professional success, is highlighted. Feedback also plays a crucial role in educational assessment, providing students with a clear view of their goals and allowing them to adjust their actions to achieve them. The importance of effective and timely feedback is emphasized, as well as its impact on learning and application of concepts in an agricultural context. In agricultural engineering, feedback is used to improve the design of irrigation and drainage systems, the selection and use of machinery, the management of agricultural waste, and the conservation of soil and water. The importance of adapting feedback to the local environment and the specific needs of each region is recognized, preparing students to face the challenges of the agricultural sector effectively. In summary, feedback plays a fundamental role in the training of agricultural engineering professionals, contributing to improve learning, optimize educational processes and promote the application of sustainable solutions in the agricultural sector worldwide.</p> Erick Ernesto Aguilar Altamirano, Edwin Youll Bautista Arroyo, Juan Alfredo Huamanchaqui-quispe, Freddy Grover Rivera Garamendi Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/133 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Mortality Rates from Cardiovascular Diseases in Different Regions of Panama and Associated Risk Factors http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/22 <p>Cardiovascular disease (CVD) constitutes a group of pathologies that affect the heart and blood vessels, including coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, peripheral artery diseases, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart diseases, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolisms. Globally, cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality, claiming over 17 million lives annually. Most of these deaths are attributed to coronary heart diseases and cerebrovascular accidents, with one-third occurring prematurely in individuals under 70 years of age, according to the World Health Organization.&nbsp;In the Americas region, the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is significant, with 62.5% of adults affected by overweight or obesity, resulting from changes in dietary habits, lack of physical activity, and environmental and social variations. In Panama, these conditions translate into a concerning scenario, with ischemic heart diseases, heart failures, and cerebrovascular accidents leading the causes of death, responsible for 43% of annual fatalities. These diseases have become a silent pandemic, according to Panamanian health authorities. The objective of this work is to conduct a comprehensive review of mortality rates due to cardiovascular diseases in different regions of Panama, focusing on associated risk factors. The research relies on documents from international organizations such as the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO), as well as national sources like the Ministry of Health, Social Security Fund, and the Gorgas Memorial Institute.</p> Sharming L. González R. Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/22 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Hygiene Practices and Their Impact on the Prevention of Foodborne Illness in Panamanian Restaurants http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/102 <p>Food handlers must be familiar with various prevention methods to minimize potential risks. Hygiene is one of the most important forms of food processing prevention. Hygiene in food handling refers to various aspects, including health, proper personal hygiene, work attire, and hygiene practices directly related to food. Microorganisms are often transmitted through the mouth, hands, mucous membranes, and intestines. That's why personal hygiene is crucial when going to work. This hygiene includes, at a minimum, showering with water and soap, brushing hair, brushing teeth, and cleaning and trimming nails. Foodborne diseases (FBD) constitute a significant global health problem. They are caused by the consumption of water or food contaminated with microorganisms or parasites, or by toxic substances produced by them. The preparation and handling of food are key factors in the development of these diseases, making consumer attitudes crucial for prevention. In fact, statistics indicate that nearly 40% of reported FBD outbreaks occur at home. Water and foodborne diseases in Panama include: 1. Diarrhea, 2. Hepatitis A, 3. Typhoid fever: water distribution systems are not always safe, 4. Listeriosis: careful hygiene and preparation in the consumption of cheeses and dairy products, 5. Brucellosis: the main agents are <em>Brucella</em> and <em>B. suis</em>, y 6. Cysticercosis: primarily distributed in the central part of the country (Herrera and Veraguas provinces).</p> Shasira De Gracia, Ayitbell Menotti, John Smith Morris, Diana C. Rodríguez J., Jorge L. Valencia S., Brenda Mulá, Betzabé González, Dianeliz Gil, Esteban Ureña Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/102 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Urbanization on Public Health: An Analysis of Lifestyle-Related Diseases in Urban Areas in Panama http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/103 <p>Urbanization is a key process in the current organization of population development. The migration of people from rural spaces to cities or other densely populated areas brings about situations and needs that lead to changes in lifestyle. Therefore, in this document, with the assistance of various authors, we aim to analyze and compare different data that provide evidence of the impact of urbanization on public health and diseases related to lifestyles in urban areas in Panama. Health is not only an indicator of the quality of urban planning but also an essential element to ensure sustainable development. Placing health and well-being at the center of the planning process can promote suitable livelihoods, foster resilient and dynamic communities, give voice to vulnerable groups, and, at the same time, contribute to reducing inequalities in urban areas.</p> Kaycha Lane , Ariani González , Rosa Rodríguez , Mitchell Adya , Gabriel E. Herrera P. , Wendy Brown , Daniel Gutiérrez , Dalia Torres , María Rodríguez , Rebeca Navarro Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/103 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Conceptions and imaginaries on general and specific didactics of teachers and students of the Bachelor's Degree in Early Childhood Education of the Minuto de Dios University Corporation, Uniminuto http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/104 <p>In the training of graduates in early childhood education, didactics is directed in two directions. The first corresponds to the conceptions and imaginaries that teachers of future graduates have about didactics and the way in which they approach and assume it in their classes. The second is oriented to how undergraduate students conceptually and praxeologically appropriate didactics in their practice scenarios. Thus, the present study analyzes the conceptions and imaginaries about general and specific didactics that teachers and students of the Bachelor of Early Childhood Education program at Uniminuto – Seccional Antioquia – Chocó have and the impact of these conceptions on their pedagogical practices. The study was carried out from a qualitative, descriptive-analytical approach. The analysis of the findings was done under pre-established conceptually based categories. Analyzes led to the construction of subcategories or emerging categories. Based on the elaborated categorical analysis, the imaginaries of teachers and students were related to the theoretical foundations of the field of general and specific didactics. The study included a sample of 29 teachers and 20 fifth and seventh semester students who were studying the teaching spaces of the Bachelor of Early Childhood Education program at Uniminuto – Sectional Antioquia – Chocó. The publication shows similarities in the conceptions of the term didactics between teachers and students, as well as a similarity in imaginaries that define didactics as resources, strategies and teaching-learning methods. Compared to the category of specific didactics, a greater variety of terms and variables that students and teachers use to define them are evident. On the other hand, it can be inferred that, in the sample studied, there is little clarity in the relational differences between education and pedagogy, which affects the epistemological understanding of didactics. Another significant finding corresponds to the fact that students and teachers allude that didactics is mainly oriented towards learning. Finally, it is evident that the students carry out their pedagogical activities. To conclude, the study discusses the issue of didactics training for future graduates in early childhood education who will work in early childhood care, especially when didactics is oriented toward teaching, and the Colombian public policies that define initial education, they propose that at this stage children are not guided towards teaching but rather towards comprehensive development. From the above, it is proposed to constitute a field of study of didactics oriented towards child development and not specifically towards teaching.</p> Daniela Bernal López, Luz Marina Llanos Díaz Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/104 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Neutralizing Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in Individuals with Natural Immunity and Vaccinated Individuals Residents of the State of Aragua, Venezuela http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/105 <p>The outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 disease that started in December 2019 has spread worldwide and has become a global pandemic, with over 676 million cases and more than 6 million deaths to date.&nbsp; The rapid spread and the significant damage caused by the virus have caught the attention of healthcare personnel&nbsp;&nbsp; and&nbsp;&nbsp; large corporations, who have sought to control the progression of the disease through the development of various vaccines. One of the goals of vaccine administration is the production of neutralizing antibodies, as they play a key role in the neutralization and elimination of the virus. In this regard, a cross-sectional descriptive study was done to evaluate the presence and concentration of neutralizing antibodies against SARS- CoV-2 using the dry immunofluorescence method in a sample of 48 vaccinated individuals with different doses and anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, these persons also are residents of the state of Aragua. Various variables, such as pre-existing diseases and history of prior infection, were taken into account and obtained through a data collection form, which allowed a comparison of the concentrations of neutralizing antibodies based on the dose and the vaccine administered. With the development of this project, reliable data is now readily available to inform about decision-making regarding the booster effect doses administered over time.</p> Loana Añez , Rafael Antonio Cárdenas , Blanca León , Luisa Ambrosio , Franklin Jesús Pacheco-Coello Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/105 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Reflection of Practice in Pedagogical Advice and Support: Look from Critical Pedagogy http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/106 <p>This research work is based on an introspective and critical look at daily practice as a school supervisor, the central objective is the professionalization of its functions, based on the re-signification of the teaching work of educational actors. The problem is contextualized in the need to transform the advisory and pedagogical support functions so that school directors reflect on their practice for educational improvement. Situation that is widely discussed from his experience, conjectured within the framework of critical pedagogy and action research. The reflection is based on the category of analysis. The main findings show the lack of training school directors in the improvement of precursor skills of cognitive, narrative and critical thinking so that they can exercise reflection on practice as a permanent, sustained and objectified intellectual exercise that stimulates the metamorphosis of their educational realities.</p> David Vitte Viveros Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/106 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Bodybuilding and Sports Training in Athletes from the Gymnasiums of the City of Guaranda, Year 2022-2023 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/107 <p>Bodybuilding, popularly known as bodybuilding, is a physical activity that is based on the intensive performance of physical exercises, normally of an anaerobic nature, which mostly consist of training with weights and specialized machinery in the area of a gym through of hypertrophy or strength exercises, in athletes from gyms in the city of Guaranda, Province of Bolívar. The main objective of this research is to describe bodybuilding and sports training; to meet this objective, a monographic work was carried out. Some considerations emerged from the following work: the practice of bodybuilding is closely related to body image as well as certain personality traits, eating habits, self-esteem, scientific research also showed that this practice has an impact on social, family and not only individual population that practice. Among the most notable findings, significant relationships could be seen between narcissistic personality traits, low self-esteem, depressive and anxious symptoms in bodybuilding, especially in those who compete. According to the analysis of the information obtained, there are information gaps at the national level. Bodybuilding is a trendy concept in the world of sports. It is, in general terms, a competitive sport in which the participants are judged, both by their physique and by their athletic quality. They are elite competitions, both at the provincial, national and international level, which in the vast majority of cases have a great impact.</p> Byron Enrique Mora Avilez, Camila Valeria Mora Gutiérrez, Diana Nicole Mora Gutiérrez, Magali Elizabeth Gutiérrez León, Angel Alexis Arguello Guamán Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/107 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Violation of the Constitutional Principle of the Right to the Presumption of Innocence in the Face of the Prison Crisis in Ecuador http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/108 <p>The violation of the principle of innocence has been evident in Ecuador, whose factor is increasing and this aspect much more critical was reflected in the country's prison crisis in 2020, a crisis that left the country with many destroyed homes and a weak administration of justice before the country and the region. The first point of this work is the study of the constitutional principle of presumption of innocence and the necessary regulatory requirements so that this right is not taken as just a wet and worthless piece of paper. In addition to the legal requirements to delimit the right to freedom. Starting from the knowledge that every person is innocent until proven otherwise and must be treated with the state of innocence, said state of innocence is lost with the pronouncement of an enforceable order or final sentence that ratifies their state by the judge of criminal guarantees. Therefore, this constitutional principle inscribed in the constitution of Ecuador is a primary guarantee for strict respect for the right to freedom and other rights related to it. Constitutional principle: A constitutional principle is understood to be the precepts that regulate and have binding force, whose effectiveness and subsequent application is connected to the complementary regulatory development. Furthermore, they are the prescriptions that delimit the axiological and political scope of a legal order, their purpose is to guarantee and ensure the permanence and sense of obligation of the content of the constitution. This investigation will reveal whether there is actually a violation of the constitutional principle of the presumption of innocence in the prison system of Ecuador in 2020. The position on the issue is that the lack of commitment on the part of prosecutors and judges is evident. Criminal guarantees since these are the ones in charge of collecting and deciding after analyzing the legal situation of the accused. Rather, they have the figure of preventive detention as a resource that will be applied to all defendants, when its true purpose and commission will only be contemplated as a last resort. Thus safeguarding the fundamental right to life and the right to liberty; understanding that freedom is defined as a fundamental, sacred and imprescriptible right that every human being possesses, that is, it is the faculty or quality of the human being to act according to his or her will as long as respecting the laws and in the same way the right of a third. In the face of the deplorable prison administration of the country whose rotten fruit was the killing of innocent people due to a bad ruling or a misinterpretation of the country's constitutional and criminal law. This investigation will be empowered by focusing on the problem, searching for and resolving the questions and the nature of the problem's emergence. In addition, with this you will find possible solutions, conclusions and subsequent recommendations on the topic to be developed. The method used in this work is the scientific method since it seeks to decipher the truth through the facts, as well as the historical method that allows us to understand and comprehend the reality of the events under study and finally the inductive and deductive methods to obtain a solid conclusion and understanding of the topic.</p> Angel Alexis Arguello Guamán , Byron Enrique Mora Avilez, Diana Nicole Mora Gutiérrez, Camila Valeria Mora Gutiérrez Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/108 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Oral Testimony of Waranga Culture in Learning in the Area of Language and Literature http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/109 <p>The In our society, education, seen as a formal or informal process, constitutes the permanent opportunity for human beings to advance in their own formation and strengthening as social and individual actors. The participation of people in this social constructionist process gives them the opportunity to access various ways of facing the constantly renewed everyday life of their lives, that is, even when permanent learning is repeatedly referred to, education does not represent for itself an end. Culture, assumed as the tradition of meanings and meanings present in the contexts of life, is not only a matter of determination of personality by the environment, nor is it a matter of total and complete reflection and criticism of the individual on it, the relationship with others, it allows us to learn ways of acquiring elements of the context and making them our own, in the same way that the ability to carry out internal processes of evaluating options and courses of action is developed in such environments; For this reason, it is explainable that people living in similar environments form personalities and show divergent attitudes and emotions, but also that their actions take different courses when facing similar situations. Learning culture implies constant preparation and disposition, seen as a necessity, to resolve individual and collective life situations, which is why a concept of culture is taken into account here that recovers its symbolic and contextual character, that is: culture is the organization social meaning, internalized in a relatively stable way by subjects in the form of schemes or shared representations, and objectified in symbolic forms, all in historically specific and socially structured contexts. Living in the family, school, street, etc. is a process of collective construction, where both individuality and the collective are constituted, it is a communicative process, where it is usual for people to exchange opinions and certainties about certain aspects of life. world, who live accordingly and show evidence of them, the possibility of accessing the culture of the group or society is given by the same opportunity with which the interactions occur, sometimes completely intentional, and in others mediated by chance and immediacy of the environments, language has an important role here: language emerges in the life of the individual through a continuous exchange of meanings with other signifiers. A child creates, first his childhood language, then his mother tongue, in interaction with that small group of people that constitutes his significant group, in that sense, language is a product of the social process. A child who learns language at the same time learns other things through language, forming an image of the reality that is around him and inside him; During this process, which is also a social process, the construction of reality is inseparable from the construction of the semantic system in which reality is coded, in that sense language is a potential for shared meaning, at the same time both a part as a subjective interpretation of experience.</p> Byron Enrique Mora Avilez, Willian Gonzalo Gavilánez Flores, Angel Alexis Arguello Guamán , Diana Nicole Mora Gutiérrez, Camila Valeria Mora Gutiérrez Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/109 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Neuropsicología de Pacientes en Programas de Diálisis Peritoneal http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/110 <p>Epidemiologically, it has been shown that individuals with CKD have a higher Risk of developing cognitive disorders, in addition to anxiety and depression. The objective is to explore the neuropsychological profile of patients with CKD stage G5 which are found in peritoneal dialysis programs. Materials and methods: It’s a clinical-epidemiological study, descriptive of the diagnostic type, observational and cross-selectional. It included 42 patients who attended the outpatient clinic of nephrology at the Central Hospital of Maracay and La Victoria Dialysis from March-June 2019. Results: Male patients, Graffar IV and from another municipalities outside Aragua state, the average age was 51, 21. The predominant comorbidity was HBP(71.43%) and the most frequent time of treatment in peritoneal dialysis was between 0-5 years, receiving it on a regular basis 88.1% of the patients. Among the cognitive functions, the MoCA-test determined greater alteration in attention(83.33%), visuospatial capacity(80.95%) and memory(92.86%); the INECO test throws bigger alteration in inverse stimulate (100%), visual work(97.62%), verbal abstraction (88.1%) and verbal inhibitory control(95.24%). Anxiety manifests mildly in 42.86% and sadness predominates moderately in 47.62% of patients. The alteration of MoCA related to mild anxiety (83,3%) and moderate sadness(90%); the alteration in the INECO associated to mild anxiety (94,4%) and moderate sadness (100%). Conclusion: Patients with CKD have cognitive affection, the executive control, focus change and self-regulation; the emotional stage is an influential variable in cognitive function.</p> Datson Arias , Valentina Balaustren , Vanessa Bergolla , María Laura Bermúdez , Mariela Rasquin, Oscar Sánchez , Seyla Vita Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/110 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Mortality Rates from Cardiovascular Diseases in Different Regions of Panama and Associated Risk Factors http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/111 <p>Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in developed countries. The challenges faced by experts worldwide to halt the progression of what they already consider an epidemic are directed in four areas: prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and research. In this article, the author reviews some of the new perspectives in the treatment of cardiovascular system diseases. Many cardiac diseases are silent. 50% of males and 64% of females die suddenly due to heart disease, without prior warning. Experts believe that determining the risk as early and accurately as possible is crucial. In this context, it is essential to know who and why someone might have a heart attack. Part of the answer lies in our genes. Tracking the human genome to identify genes involved in heart diseases and developing a routine test to calculate a person's genetic sensitivity could be decisive in controlling these diseases. Understanding our genetic predisposition, reviewing patient habits, weight, blood pressure, and known risk factors such as cholesterol levels, among others, will enable doctors to determine more precisely and convincingly which patients need pharmacological treatment with statins, which patients only need to increase exercise, or which patients must definitively change their lifestyle before a cardiovascular episode occurs.</p> Mary Carmen Yànguez, Charybeth Chavarrìa, Sahara Medina, Mixaida Castillo, Cynthia Cepeda, Iris Griffith Griffith, Sergio Real, Yiseila Franco, Rosa Albaez, Sharming L. Gonzàlez Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/111 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Hygiene Practices and Their Impact on the Prevention of Foodborne Illness in Panamanian Restaurants http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/113 <p>In these study will evaluated compliance with Good Hygiene Practices (GHP) in 100 restaurants in Panama City. The results showed that GHP compliance was poor overall, with an average of 57.5%. The most common non-compliances were found in the areas of personal hygiene of food handlers, cleaning and disinfecting facilities and equipment, and safe handling of food. The results of the study suggest that improving hygiene practices in restaurants in Panama could contribute to reducing the incidence of foodborne illness. To this end, it is recommended the implementation of training programs for food handlers, the strengthening of inspection and surveillance systems, and the application of sanctions to establishments that fail to comply with sanitary regulations.</p> Angelica Janeth Rangel Lopéz Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/113 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in women of the Yaracuy State http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/114 <p>Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a common virus associated with cervical cancer. Its detection and genotyping are crucial for prevention. A study in Yaracuy State, Venezuela, evaluated 108 women, finding a 27.78% prevalence of HPV, with genotypes 16 and 18 being the most frequent. Although no high-grade lesions were found, the importance of early detection is highlighted. Statistical analysis revealed a homogeneous age distribution among participants. Cytological results mainly showed moderate inflammation. HPV molecular detection was performed using high-performance tests. Although Venezuela still relies on cytology for cervical cancer screening, there is a call to consider HPV testing to improve diagnostic accuracy. This study provides a detailed view of HPV epidemiology in the region and emphasizes the need to update screening programs.</p> Andreina Fernandes, María Correnti, María Eugenia Cavazza, Dayahíndara Veitía, Diana Ortiz, María Montilla, Gysell Plata, Ey-Ling Plata, Maira Ávila Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/114 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Antimicrobial Effect of Nitrofurazone against Bacteria Cultured at the Coromoto Hospital of Maracaibo http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/115 <p>The fundamental objective of this research was to demonstrate the antimicrobial spectrum of Nitrofurazone, against cultured bacteria from the Burn Patient Care Center, CAINPAQ, of the Coromoto Hospital. The research was applied and descriptive, being a feasible project, with a laboratory and transversal experimental design. The data were collected by the researcher through direct observation at the CAINPAQ facilities, as well as in the Bacteriology Laboratory of the Coromoto Hospital in the city of Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela. The information was processed statistically and organized in tables, tables and/or graphs, through descriptive statistics for the analysis of the research results. It was concluded that Nitrofurazone does not have antimicrobial properties, nor antibacterial effects inhibiting the growth of the strains subjected to the study, it did not generate inhibition in the growth halos nor did it generate oxidative changes in its structure and it did not produce staining effects to differentiate to Gram positive or Gram negative strains.</p> Luis A Ríos Vivas, José R Núñez González , Jorge L Balzan Ballest Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/115 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Advantages of using stochastic differential equations: Brownian bridge and geometric Brownian motion http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/96 <p>This article exposes several advantages of using stochastic differential equations (SDE) compared to classical differential equations. It addresses the difference between the exponential growth model represented as a classical differential equation and its stochastic counterpart, known as geometric Brownian motion. Additionally, it analyzes the Brownian bridge as opposed to a straight line; the latter model is used in ecological contexts to simulate migratory trajectories as seen in Kranstauber, B., et al. (2012). The article begins with an explanation of the most relevant results from stochastic analysis, which is essential for developing a model based on an SDE. Subsequently, it proceeds to explain the simulation of these stochastic differential equations using the Euler-Maruyama method and the stochastic Runge-Kutta method. These simulations are crucial for generating confidence curves associated with the average function.</p> Jhonier Sebastian Rangel Gutiérrez Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/96 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Initial Medical Support of the Burned Patient by Health Personnel in Venezuela http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/116 <p>The objective of this research was to evaluate the initial medical support of the burn patient by health personnel. This Research was useful since it demonstrated that health personnel in emergency rooms do not have adequate knowledge to carry out the initial assessment and approach to the patient with a burn. The line of research was framed in Health Sciences, specifically in the area of knowledge of Caumatology or Burn Medicine, having a rationalist-deductive epistemological approach, as well as positivist, being a feasible, observational and transversal project. The sample was taken by intentional non-probabilistic sampling, with 318 people surveyed. The data was collected in a previously validated survey type form. The data were processed statistically and organized in tables and tables where the variables were displayed. The analysis of the research results was carried out through descriptive statistics. The conclusion was that the majority of medical and nursing personnel located in non-specialized centers for the initial management of patients with burns do not know the initial evaluation protocol, nor the possibility of the medical support necessary in the first 24 hours afterward to the adverse event.</p> Luis A Ríos Vivas, José R Núñez González , Jorge L Balzan Ballest Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/116 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation and Initial Approach to the Burn Patient by Health Personnel in Venezuela http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/117 <p>The objective of this research was to evaluate the initial medical support of the burn patient by health personnel. This Research was useful since it demonstrated that health personnel in emergency rooms do not have adequate knowledge to carry out the initial assessment and approach to the patient with a burn. The line of research was framed in Health Sciences, specifically in the area of knowledge of Caumatology or Burn Medicine, having a rationalist-deductive epistemological approach, as well as positivist, being a feasible, observational and transversal project. The sample was taken by intentional non-probabilistic sampling, with 318 people surveyed. The data was collected in a previously validated survey type form. The data were processed statistically and organized in tables and tables where the variables were displayed. The analysis of the research results was carried out through descriptive statistics. The conclusion was that the majority of medical and nursing personnel located in non-specialized centers for the initial management of patients with burns do not know the initial evaluation protocol, nor the possibility of the appropriate approach necessary in the first 24 hours afterward to the adverse event.</p> Luis A Ríos Vivas, José R Núñez González , Jorge L Balzan Ballest Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/117 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Working conditions and staff performance during the COVID -19 pandemic in a Hospital in Peru http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/118 <p>The pandemic has generated substantive changes in working conditions with an impact on personal and group performance. The objective was to determine the relationship between working conditions and the performance of health personnel. For this, a correlational study was carried out, developed during the year 2021, whose sample was made up of 108 health workers from a Hospital in Huánuco-Perú, questionnaires were used for both variables. Absolute and relative frequencies, measures of association and correlation coefficients with 95% reliability were used. Results. 33.3% had adequate working conditions and regular performance, 31.5% had adequate working conditions and efficient performance, and 6.5% had inadequate working conditions and poor performance; confirming a significant, strong and positive correlation between work condition and performance. Concluding that working conditions had a close relationship with the performance of health personnel.</p> Edson Mijaíl Meza Espinoza, Ana Gardenia Lazarte y Ávalos, Ennis Segundo Jaramillo Falcón, Wilmer Jhon Albornoz Flores, Vilma Llanto Cuenca Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/118 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Application of Phenolic Compounds Extracted from the Peel and Seed of Papaya (Carica papaya) in an Edible Gelatin-Based Coating to Increase its Useful Life http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/119 <p>The In the present study, the most efficient extraction method was determined to evaluate the total polyphenol content (TPC) present in papaya residues (seed and peel). In addition, a gelatin-based coating with the best extraction treatment was developed to evaluate the shelf life of the same fruit at 2 % concentration, acting effectively against microorganisms such as molds and yeasts. The CTP extracted from the peel by the hydroalcoholic extraction method was higher (326.66 mg of GA/g extract) compared to seed extraction (214 mg of GA/g extract). The results obtained by the ultrasound-assisted extraction method were lower in both peel (303.66 mg GA/g extract) and seed (198.66 mg GA/g extract). The shelf life of papaya was determined by physicochemical and microbiological analyses such as texture, colorimetry, pH, titratable acidity, ° Brix and mold and yeast counts. As for the physicochemical properties, these were affected after the second week (wk) of refrigerated storage at 8 °C. With respect to microorganisms (MO) counts increased progressively from week one in the treatments (T1, T2, T3), the initial values being 10 × 10<sup>-4</sup> ,7 × 10<sup>-5</sup>, 4 × 10<sup>-5</sup> respectively, these treatments reached final values of 149 × 10<sup>-3</sup>, 111 × 10<sup>-3</sup> and 90 × 10<sup>-4</sup>. These results demonstrate that the TPC present in papaya peel could be used in the preservation of papaya.</p> Mayela Deyanira Lozano Delgado, Ligia Elena Navarrete Cuenca, Yessenia Maribel García Montes, Marlon Reinaldo Castro García, Cesar Fabian López Zambrano, Italo Pedro Bello Moreira Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/119 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Educational Leadership Challenges Mediated by Artificial Intelligence in the Digital Age http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/120 <p>This article is based on a research project on educational leadership and Artificial Intelligence (AI). In the digital era there are several tests that are presented to educational institutions in relation to student learning and teaching. The main objective is to identify the Challenges and Strategies of Educational Leadership to Optimize Learning Mediation with Artificial Intelligence in the Digital Era. A qualitative, exploratory research was conducted, the instrument used was a survey applied to 103 participants, all of them educational leaders. Two categories were used: the first one is Educational Leadership Challenges, the second one is Strategies and Practices to address the challenges of AI. The data were analyzed with AtlasTi 23 software. The results identify several educational leadership challenges such as ethics and accountability in the use of AI, adequate training of teachers and students. In the main strategies is the allocation of workshops, seminars, mentoring programs, educational resources in order to prepare them because 58 percent responded that they do not have any strategy to address them.&nbsp; Educational leadership is transcendental to improve academic performance and face the challenges that arise.</p> Brigitte Rodriguez , Angie Arcila , Natalia Ávila , Lelis Castro , Cristhian Diaz , Diego Guarín , Diana León , Liliana Medina , Leonardo Muñoz , Marisol Padilla , Belkys Ríos , Stefanni Rosania , Zulma Rubiano , Diana Salgado , Waldo Silva Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/120 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Promotion of exclusive breastfeeding and its impact on the mother's breastfeeding practice and the nutritional status of the infant http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/99 <p>Introduction: Breast milk plays a crucial role in the health and development of children under 6 months of age. In Peru, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding has undergone changes in recent years; therefore, it is essential to continue promoting this practice. Objective: The purpose of the research was to evaluate the effect of a health promotion strategy on the practice of breastfeeding among mothers and on the nutritional status of their infants attended at the "La Revolución" health center, located in the district of San Miguel, province of San Román. Methodology: An explanatory, quantitative, prospective and longitudinal research was carried out with a quasi-experimental design, without a control group, with 75 participants. The evaluation covered several stages, analyzing breastfeeding practice and nutritional status at different times (before and after the intervention). Results: Educational and demonstrative interventions proved to be effective in breastfeeding practice (p&lt;0.05). In addition, significant differences were observed in the nutritional status of infants Z=6.68 vs. Z=1.96). Conclusions: It is concluded that educational interventions have a positive impact on improving breastfeeding practice and nutritional status of infants.</p> Karen Paola Naarvaez Trujillo, Evelin Fiorela Aruapaza Huaraccallo, Tania Laura Barra Quispe Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/99 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Importance of teamwork for the quality of healthcare http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/121 <p>In the psychological realm, camaraderie and teamwork are workplace conditions that have a positive impact on a company's human resources, generating enthusiasm and satisfactory results in activities. Companies that promote a harmonious environment experience benefits in both organizational effectiveness and the social relationships of employees. It is recognized that individuals seek to fulfill social needs in their work environment, considering that every organization is essentially a team formed by its personnel. All organizations aim to achieve effective and comprehensive results to meet the demands of their internal and external environments. This is equally applicable to healthcare organizations, where providing high-quality care has become a global priority. To achieve quality healthcare, it is essential to implement various elements that work in a coordinated manner. In this context, teamwork, collaboration among its members, commitment, and trust among individuals are fundamental to achieving this goal, especially in the field of nursing. The purpose of this article is to explain the relevance of teamwork in improving the quality of healthcare.</p> Fidedigna Rosario Cruz Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/121 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Sepsis: usefulness of the qSOFA, qSOFA-65 and MqSOFA scores as predictors of morbidity and mortality http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/97 <p>Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of the qSOFA, qSOFA-65 and MqSOFA scores, as predictors of morbidity and mortality in patients admitted to the Internal Medicine service of the Domingo Luciani Hospital, between May 2022-August 2023. Methods: prospective, observational, analytical, longitudinal cohort study. 190 patients diagnosed with sepsis by qsofa score, were studied. The data were analyzed with SPSS27. Pearson's chi-square was used for the relationship between variables. The prognostic utility of the scores was determined with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) using the DeLong methodology. Statistical significance was considered if p &lt; 0.05. Results: The average age was 64 ± 16 years, 51.6% male and 7.9 days, the evolution of the disease upon admission. The mixed infectious focus made up 59.3%, with urinary predominating (33.4%). Complications occurred in 84.21% and mortality in 55.78%. Neither score predicted complications. MqSOFA predicted better mortality compared to qSOFA and qSOFA-65 (p = 0.004 and p = 0.001) AUC of 0.740 (95% CI = 0.671 – 0.801), as well as the items Sat/FiO2 &lt; 235 and Glasgow &lt; 13 (AUC 0.673 and 0.616 respectively, p &lt; 0.001) Conclusions: The MqSOFA performed on admission was the best predictor of mortality.</p> <p> </p> Ismery Alejandra Lopez Duarte, Yorbell Patricia Mendoza Monterola, Carmen Yraima Zambrano Medina Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/97 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Lived Experiences of Women Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence and Self-Care Needs http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/122 <p>Introduction: Intimate partner violence is a social and public health problem most noted in the world, because it directly affects women who are victims of these abuses caused by men, where their rights to freedom are violated. to decide and be happy, in addition to the different consequences on their physical and mental health that can affect self-care skills and self-care needs. Objective: To analyze the lived experience of women survivors of intimate partner violence treated at the Santas Vainas Health Center. Material and method: This research has a qualitative approach, phenomenological in nature, where the sample was made up of 9 women who accepted their voluntary participation in the development of the study, applying the semi-structured interview technique and the application of a focus group. Which allowed the participants to share their experiences in the best way. Results: Most of the participants began to experience violence at an early age, with Psychological and Physical violence being the most frequent among them, expressed through insults, humiliation, manipulations, kicks, slaps and even through blackmail economic and emotional. Conclusion: Types of intimate partner violence are a major social problem for Esmeralda women, because it denies women their rights to autonomy, dignity, and physical and psychological integrity, which is combined with special self-care requirements.</p> Felisa Matilde Cortez Mera , Esperanza Palencia Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/122 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of the Threat of Overflow of the Soloma River as a Risk Reduction Measure in the Echeandía Canton http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/123 <p>The research project a hydrological and hydraulic modeling was developed for the Soloma River micro-basin, in this way exposure zones to the threat of flooding in the study area were identified; For the first objective, flows were obtained for a return period of 10, 50 and 100 years, where the characterization of the microbasin (MDT) was generated, an analysis was carried out according to the Manning roughness coefficient to calibrate the model with events. real events arising in the cantonal capital of Echeandìa, the simulations were validated in the IBER software for the different proposed return times, by multiplying the depth by the speed, flood zones were visualized that would be strongly impacted, thus being the settlements that are located on the left bank of the Soloma River, such as the Adolfo Páez Educational Unit, the Puente neighborhood and the Malecón Bajo, finally, structural mitigation measures were established with the aim of reducing inevitable damage in the study area.</p> Diana Nicole Mora Gutiérrez Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/123 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Critical thinking extensions in pedagogy http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/124 <p>Pedagogy is a social science that studies the educational activities of human beings and their laws. It is widely present in human life. The general laws of education are revealed through the study of educational phenomena and problems. Introducing critical thinking in pedagogy can better enable students to grasp the general laws of education and understand the existing problems, and solving the problems in education is an issue that all students should be cognizant of. In this paper, we use critical thinking to interpret the problems of education in the real society through the teaching phenomenon, and try to find ways to solve the conflicts through the extension of critical thinking, so that educators can be alerted to the current education through a series of reforms to improve education, so that the pedagogy to return to its original face.</p> Fanyu Meng Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/124 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship between exposure to tobacco smoke at home and the prevalence of respiratory diseases in children in Latin America http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/125 <p>Exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with various respiratory pathologies, especially in children; this is because their respiratory tract does not have sufficient development in defense mechanisms, which prevents them from defending themselves against toxic agents such as tobacco smoke. In Panama the real magnitude of the problem is unknown.</p> <p>A primary and secondary analysis of existing information and data in Latin America is shown in relation to smoke exposure in homes and the prevalence of respiratory diseases. The sample includes studies from 2010 to date carried out in Latin America, which were obtained from scientific journals such as Scielo and Redalyc, ScienceDirect.</p> <p>The magnitude of exposure to tobacco smoke in children is high; in countries like ours, the real figure is unknown due to the lack of studies on the matter. Measures that are necessary should be used throughout the region to ensure that children are not exposed. Health professionals should seek, identify and provide counseling aimed at parents with smoking habits.</p> <p>Tobacco consumption in children represents a significant public health problem in various parts of the world. The harmful effects of tobacco smoke, active and passive, affect humans throughout life, from the intrauterine period.</p> Magdaley Contreras , Gladys Fernández , González Morales, Luz Miranda , Arelis Rivera , Delba Villalobos-Cerrud , Gloria Y. Saucedo B., Aikis D. Serrano G. Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/125 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Antimicrobial Potential of Metallic Nanoparticles: Pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/126 <p>The increase in antimicrobial resistance has allowed biotechnology to continue evolving. In this sense, this review article focuses on the various mechanisms that both <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae </em>have in causing infections in humans and how, through various virulence factors, they can evade the action of antibiotics. Based on this, it is also shown how nanomaterials, such as metal nanoparticles, are an excellent alternative to respond to the current problem with these two pathogens.</p> Franklin Jesús Pacheco Coello, Michelina Rea, Patrica Reinoza Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/126 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of vaccination against infectious diseases on the pediatric population in Panama http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/127 <p>The Expanded Immunization Program in the Americas is considered one of the most successful experiences in public health due to its valuable contribution to reducing infant mortality caused by vaccine-preventable diseases in the region. Indeed, since its launch, our countries have successfully halted the transmission of wild poliovirus since 1991, as well as the indigenous circulation of measles virus since November 2002, and are making progress in eliminating rubella and congenital rubella syndrome. Additionally, national immunization programs make significant efforts to identify vulnerable populations and reduce vaccination inequities. To sustain the achievements and address new challenges, such as the introduction of new vaccines, it is necessary to strengthen partnerships among governments, donor organizations, the private sector, scientific associations, and society as a whole. In this context, PAHO (Pan American Health Organization) promotes the highest technical quality through the presentation of practical guidelines prepared by the Immunization Unit of the Family and Community Health Area</p> Nurilys Ponce, Joel Magallón, Felipe Cedeño, Samuel Espinoza, Lorena Cedeño, Kenia Góndola, Dorada Icaza, Yuanlin Loré, Bertilia Jiménez, Mónica Cantillo Cantillo, Milagro Rodríguez Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/127 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Neurorights: A New Legal and Ethical Frontier http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/128 <p>Rapid advances in neurotechnology pose significant ethical and legal challenges related to privacy and mental integrity. In response, the field of "neurorights" has emerged to regulate the impact of these emerging technologies. This article analyzes the origin of the neurorights concept and its development as a new field of applied law and ethics. It explores the philosophical implications and risks to personal autonomy posed by controversial uses of techniques such as brain monitoring. It also examines current regulatory debates, focusing on the pioneering case of Chile. It concludes by highlighting the need for new legal frameworks and ethical commitments to guarantee respect for mental privacy and other fundamental human rights.</p> Fernando Guerrero Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/128 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Importance of Statistics in Economic Sciences http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/129 <p>This article presents an evaluation of methodological approaches that highlight the considerable importance of statistics as a discipline in various areas. During the preparation of the bibliographic review, analyzes were carried out on bibliographic bases of publications, compiling significant advances made between 2018 and 2023. Forty articles were identified that contain relevant information about statistics and its relevance in the economy. To address this topic comprehensively, the review will focus on various aspects, such as the current definition of statistics, the importance of its application in different fields, its crucial role in the economy, the statistical analyzes most frequently used in the economic field and, finally, the computer programs most used in this context.</p> Erick Ernesto Aguilar Altamirano, Edwin Youll Bautista Arroyo, Freddy Grover Rivera Garamendi Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/129 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Confidence Intervals http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/130 <p>The use of confidence intervals (CI) plays a fundamental role in contemporary statistical analysis, providing a measure of the uncertainty associated with statistics and allowing researchers to evaluate the precision of results. Used in various disciplines, (CI) are based on statistical inference to estimate the variability of unknown population parameters. Its interpretation and application are essential for informed decision making and the validity of the results. The bibliographic review carried out for this study covered various sources and academic platforms, selecting 14 articles from 35 research papers. (CI), by providing a plausible range for the true value of the parameter, are crucial for clinical interpretation and decision making. Careful evaluation of CI limits, considering practical relevance, is essential for the proper conclusion of a study, avoiding discarding results with important implications. Proper understanding and application of (CI) improve the accuracy and transparency of scientific processes and empirical decision making.</p> Erick Ernesto Aguilar Altamirano, Edwin Youll Bautista Arroyo , Freddy Grover Rivera Garamendi Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/130 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Use of paracetamol in pregnancy http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/95 <p>Acetaminophen, also known as paracetamol, is a pain reliever commonly used to relieve pain and fever during pregnancy. According to most doctors and studies, acetaminophen is considered safe for pregnant women. However, there are some concerns about its use during pregnancy, as it can cross the placenta as well as being associated with asthma and allergies in newborns. Objective: To compile updated information on the use of paracetamol in pregnant women. Methods: A collection of data was carried out on the use of paracetamol in pregnant women, including the definition of what it consists of, its long-term adverse effects and their consequences. Scielo, Google Scholar and PubMed were consulted, the search period was November to December 2023.</p> Lilian Maria Raquel Britez Enciso, Cristian Pestana Sierra Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/95 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Almost Human Machines: A small line between Artificial Intelligence and Robotics http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/131 <p>This research aims to introduce participants to the foundations, applications and challenges of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics, addressing relevant concepts, historical evolution, the impact on various sectors and its ethical and moral implications. A series of methodologies have been combined such as netnographic, exploratory and descriptive. The netnographic, investigated what happens in virtual communities. Exploratory research to find out about relatively new topics, providing an overview and their implications in the environment. Descriptive research to analyze and show in detail the fundamental aspects of the object of study, as well as the ethical and moral challenges around AI and robotics. This research has been based on thematic axes such as the Fundamentals of AI and Robotics: Definitions, history and current relevance, Transformative Potential: Impact on industrial, labor and innovation sectors, Challenges and Ethics: Ethical considerations and regulatory challenges, Applications and Case Studies: Current and future examples, Student Role: Academic and professional opportunities. The aim is for participants to acquire a real understanding of AI and robotics today, reflecting on the pros and cons of these tools and exploring in a panoramic way the future potential of these technologies, encouraging them to acquire the necessary skills through constant and innovative training to adapt to the world that awaits them.</p> Saulo-Enrique Ospino Pereira Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/131 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Medical Simulation and Artificial Intelligence in Quality Medical Training for Medical Students http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/132 <p>This article discusses the role of medical simulation and artificial intelligence (AI) in quality medical education for medical school students. The literature review confirms that both medical simulation and AI offer highly effective tools for training health professionals. AI has the ability to analyze large volumes of clinical data and generate realistic scenarios based on real cases, providing students and professionals with evidence-backed learning experiences. The conclusion highlights the importance of AI in the context of medical simulation, as it provides exceptional learning and training opportunities. However, adopting AI in simulation also presents challenges, such as the complexity of the technology and issues related to data privacy and security. It is essential that healthcare professionals understand the applications, benefits and challenges of AI to ensure its effective and ethical use in healthcare.</p> Sadith Villca Roso, Juan Wilfredo Choque Medrano Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/132 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Cover, printing data, editorial committee and index http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/101 <p>Cover, printing data, editorial committee and index</p> J. Jesus Padilla-Frausto Copyright (c) 2024 Multidisciplinary & Health Education Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journalmhe.org/ojs3/index.php/jmhe/article/view/101 Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000